About this site | Join our Book Club | About the Author  
Culture of IRAN
Culture of Iran
Culture of IRAN   Culture of IRAN
Home » Religion » Zoroastrian Pre-Islamic Texts; Zadspram
Culture of Iran Culture of Iran
Zoroastrian Pre-Islamic Texts; Zadspram
The Selections of Zadspram
Translated by: W. E. West

Chapter 24: Five dispositions of priests and ten admonitions

  1. 1. About the five dispositions of priests, and the ten admonitions with which all instruction as to religion is connected.
  2. Of those five dispositions the first is innocence.
  3. The second is discrimination among thoughts, words, and deeds; [to fully distinguish the particulars of destruction from indestructiveness, such as noxious creatures from cattle; and of production from unproductiveness, such as the righteous an worthy from the wicked and unworthy].
  4. The third is authoritativeness, because that priestly master is always wiser and speaking more correctly who is taught wisely and teaches with more correct words.
  5. The fourth is to [understand and consider the ceremonial as the ceremonial of Ohrmazd, and the essentials with all goodness, beneficence, and authority; to be steadfast in his religion, and to consider the indications of protection (sayag) which are established for his religion.
  6. To maintain the reverence of the luminaries prayerfully, also the reverence of the emanations from the six archangels, be they fire, be they earth, or be they of bodily form, and of the creatures which are formed by them; also the pure cleansing from dead matter, menstruation, bodily refuse, and other hurtfulness; this is in order that they may be characterized, and thereby constituted, as better-principled, more sensible, and purer, and they may become less faulty.
  7. The reverence of mankind is to consider authoritatively about knowledge and property; the reverence of cattle is about fodder, little hardship, and moderate maintenance; the reverence of plants is about sowing and ripening for the food of the worthy.
  8. The ceremonial which is glorifying all the sacred beings, praises the luminaries and worldly creations improperly, and is antagonistic to them, because complete glorification is proper through complete recitation of the ritual; and the ceremonial of any one whatever is his own proper duty professionally, so long as it is possible to keep proceeding with very little sinfulness].
  9. The fifth is to struggle prayerfully, day and night, with your own fiend, and all life long not to depart from steadfastness, nor allow your proper duty to go out of your hands.
  10. And the first of those ten admonitions is to proceed with good repute, for the sake of occasioning approving remarks as to the good repute of your own guardian and teacher, high-priest and master.
  11. The second is to become awfully refraining from evil repute, for the sake of evil repute not occurring to relations and guardians.
  12. The third is not to beat your own teacher with a snatched-up stick, and not to bring scandal upon his name, for the sake of annoying him, by uttering that which was not heard from your own teacher.
  13. The fourth is that whatever is taught liberally by your own teacher, you have to deliver back to the worthy, for the sake of not extorting a declaration of renown from the righteous.
  14. The fifth is that the reward of doers of good works and the punishment of criminals have to be established by law, for the sake of progress.
  15. The sixth is to keep the way of the good open to your house, for the sake of making righteousness welcome in your own abode.
  16. The seventh is that, for the sake of not developing the fiend insensibly in your reason, you are not to keep it with the religion of the good, nor to remain in impenitence of sin.
  17. The eighth is that, for the sake of severing the fiend from the reason, you have to force malice away from your thoughts, and to become quickly repentant of sin.
  18. The ninth is to fully understand the forward movement of the religion, also to keep the advancing of the religion further forwards, and to seek your share of duty therein; and on a backward movement, when adversity happens to the religion, to have the religion back again, and to keep your body in the continence (makavadih) of religion.
  19. The tenth is that there is to be a period of obedience (Sroshdarih) towards the ruler and priestly authority, the high-priesthood of the religious.


Chapter 25: About the three divisions of revelation

  1. About the three divisions of revelation there is a condensed medium, beneficial and small, of whose subdivision one category (rajistako) is collection together; that is, the Ahunwar itself is a symbol of the Nasks.
  2. First, the Ahunwar is apportioned into its three degrees (padman), as shown in another chapter; and by a like system (rajistak) the Gathas, too, are into three, which are the three-lined, four-lined, and five-lined; even so the Nasks are denominated Gathic, Hadha-mathric, and Law.
  3. Then the Ahunwar is apportioned into six: which they call half-lines (nem-gas); so, too, the Gathas are into six, which are called the Ahunavaiti Gatha, the Yasna, the Ushtavaiti Gatha, the Spenta-Mainyu (Spetamato) Gatha, the Vohu-khshathra Gatha, and the Vahishtoishti Gatha; even so the Nasks are into six, as the Gathas are into two, which are called one the Gathic creation -- which is the Yasht -- and one the rest of the Gathic; also the Hadha-mathric into two, one the Mathra of the arranger -- which is the Pacino and Rado-dado-aito -- and one the Mathra full of good tokens, which is the rest of the Hadha-mathra; and also the Law into two, one the law against the demons -- which is the Vendidad -- and one the law of Zartosht, which is the rest of the Law.
  4. Then it is apportioned into twenty-one, such as the twenty-one words (marik) of the Ahunwar; also the Gathas are into twenty-one, which are the Ahunwar, the praise of righteousness, the performance of the good, and from Yanim-mano unto Airyaman which, being accomplished (akardo), are twenty-one; and the Nasks are twenty-one.
  5. Then the Gathas are apportioned into 278 stanzas (vecesto); and the Nasks also into 278 categories, every single category having borne a form like a single verse, as regards how much and how anything good is indicated, such as the Patkar-radistan, in which what is legally disputable is reported (pedako); the Zakhmistan, by which the penalty of assault (zakhm) is reported; the Storistan, by which the sin and amount of penalty for a wound, as regard beasts of burden and cattle, are reported; the Arateshtaristan, by which battle is reported; the Pasush-haurastan, by which the customary keeping of sheep in control is reported; the Jurdai-zaritunistan ('corn-sowing code'), by which agriculture is reported; the Varistan, by which an ordeal being accomplished is reported; and others of a like description.
  6. Then the Gathas are apportioned into 1016 metrical lines (gas), and the Nasks into 1000 Has and Fargards, and, since the Hadokht is the priestly master (rado) of the Nasks, and the remedy (darmon) which is a perfect statement about the master of the resurrection, the existence of its fargards about the other fargards is therefore 1000 remedies fully combined, being the corn and fodder that are shut up (bastako) when, over that thousand, they supply one that is great, which in every way protects them from hail and rain, from the wind which is hot and that which is cold.
  7. Then the Gathas are apportioned into 6666 words (marik), and as to the Nasks, too, their own 6666 ordinances (dadistano) are therein severed.
  8. And the 6666 words, which are in the Gathas, are an indicator of the period from the adversary having come to the creatures, as far as unto the end of the six millenniums -- each millennium being ten centuries -- which amount to 60 single centuries -- a century being ten tens -- and up to the time when its cold and distress arrive, which become awful; the 600, including the excess as far as one ten, are years of the 6000 years which are the words of the six Gathas that are the first indicator of the six millenniums; therefore of the 60 centuries are then the 600 and those which are added to them (zak-i ghal).
  9. And after those 6000, which are the 6000 years, are the Airyaman of Ardwahisht and the accompanying sayings (ham-vaco) which are at the end of the Gathas; those are the 57 years of Soshyant, and for the sake of them, too, are the Airyaman and from the praise of righteousness at its end to the consecration of the Airyaman, originally 57 words (marik), because the praise of righteousness for the Airyaman is 12, and the consecration of the Airyaman is 21, of the original 57.



Exploring Ancient World Cultures
Readings from the Ancient Near East


« previous page

Culture of Iran Culture of Iran
Culture of IRAN   Culture of IRAN
Culture of IRAN   Culture of IRAN
Copyrights 2006 Cultureofiran.com Site By:
Culture of IRAN   Culture of IRAN